This study was triggered by a set of questions on the roots of the Iranian troubled history and its experiences of socio-economic underdevelopment in the last 100 years. During the last century, Iran has experienced one war, two revolutions, and multiple forms of socio-political movements, many episodes of international interventions and sanctions, and numerous instances of internal violent conflicts. Except for small episodes of upsurge in positive feelings in the revolutionary climates, Iranians seem to be deeply resentful and unhappy about almost every aspect of their own social order from their polity to their culture and economy. The economic measures like per capita income or the rate of inflation or unemployment do not tell a positive story about the Iranian economy. As Amuzegar (2014: 81) attests, Iran’s economic woes include:
high unemployment, virulent inflation, low factor productivity, slow growth, low levels of domestic savings and foreign direct investment, and relatively high but unprofitable public outlays.