EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES, MORE THAN 3 million people sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this population, the psychosocial deficits are, most frequently, the major source of disability to the patient and of stress to the family. Patients may have difficulties in many vital areas of functioning, including family, interpersonal, vocational, educational, and recreational. Many people who have suffered TBI also exhibit extreme personality changes. Because of the focus of most medical specialists on the sensory and motor deficits and dysfunctions associated with TBI, the psychiatric impairments often go unrecognized. Education of most mental health professionals regarding the psychosocial sequelae of TBI is vastly insufficient. The cognitive, emotional, and behavioral consequences of TBI range from the dramatic to the subtle; consequently, clinicians without the requisite training and experience may not look for or recognize these symptoms or may attribute impairments to other conditions such as major depression or dementia. The net result is often delayed diagnosis or failure to diagnose neuropsychiatric aspects of TBI, which, of course, leads to inadequate or deficient treatment.