Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer yet only the 20th most common cancer in the UK and represents less than 1% of all new malignancies. There are three main types: papillary, follicular and medullary thyroid cancer. However, within these groups are many histological subtypes, which will be discussed in more detail in Chap. 2. Rarely thyroid cancer can be anaplastic cancers which have a very poor prognosis compared with all other types of thyroid cancer. Lymphoma of the thyroid can also occur; however, the treatment is with chemotherapy and will not be discussed further. The European incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the last decade by 65% in women and 69% in men . While this may be partially explained by increased diagnosis of micropapillary thyroid cancers due to increasing neck ultrasounds [2–4], there is data to suggest that all stages of thyroid cancer have increased  therefore implying that the actual incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. 2011 cancer statistics reveal the age-standardised incidence of thyroid cancer has risen to 5.6 per 100,000 in women and 2.2 per 100,000 in men in the UK .