Over the past several decades, obesity and diabetes mellitus have become an increasing problem that constitutes a global epidemic, representing one of the most important chronic disease conditions in the world with critically important public health implications. Patients with diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop myriad cardiovascular diseases; its key sequelae are myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Over this same time period, the cardiology community has increasingly recognized the adverse cardiovascular prognosis of patients with diabetes, with increasing understanding of the heterogeneity of efficacy of available medical and interventional strategies by diabetes status and a notable unmet clinical need to mitigate the incremental “residual” cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes. Based on these observations and resultant evolution of regulatory requirements for diabetes drug development around the world, it is only within the past few years that the cardiovascular effects and safety of glucose-lowering therapies have begun to undergo rigorous assessment in large-scale randomized cardiovascular outcome trials focusing specifically on patients with diabetes. Thus the field of cardiovascular disease in diabetes has gained momentum over the past years, resulting in joint activities and guidelines from cardiology and diabetes associations around the world, requiring and fostering a truly interdisciplinary collaborative research and clinical partnership among cardiologists, endocrinologists, primary care providers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacists, and diabetes educators—reflected in the diverse authorship of chapters in this textbook.